3 Types of Claims for Proof with Examples in Writing

Let’s learn about different types of claims.

1. Claims of Fact

Definition: Claims of fact center on debates about subjects we believe to be objectively true or untrue. These types of claims should be empirically disputable. It is basically an existence of facts about the past present and future.

Types of factual claims (generally “objective”) 

1. Factual/historical 

2. Relational – causal connections 

3. Predictive proof requires: 

The proof required for Claim Of Fact:

1. sufficient and appropriate grounds 

2. reliable authority 

3. recent data 

4. accurate, typical data 

5. clearly defined terms -no loaded language 

Examples include:

• Global warming is a human?caused phenomenon.

• Women are as effective as men in combat.

• The 1950s were a time of racial and gender harmony in the United States.

2. Claims of Value

Definition: Claims of value evaluate the inherent goodness or morality of an event and the value systems by which we should make decisions. 

The proof required in Claim Of Value:

1. Establishing standards of evaluation (i.e. a warrant that defines what constitutes instances of the relevant value) 

2. note the priority of the value in this instance. 

3. Establish the advantage (practical or moral) of your standards. 

4. Use examples to clarify abstract values 

5. Use credible authorities for support. 

Examples include:

• Euthanasia is an affront to God.

• The dancing that occurs in high schools leads to immoral behavior.

• Democracies are the only legitimate form of government.

3. Claims of Policy

Definition: Claims of policy address the course of action we should take, the policies we should adopt, and the way that we attempt to solve problems. 

The proof required in Claim Of Policy:

1. Making proposed action clear 

2. need (justification) 

3. plan, (must be workable) 

4. benefit (advantages) 

5. consider opposition/counter arguments

Examples include:

• The state of Texas should secede from the United States.

• The United States should adopt a Canadian?style universal healthcare system.

• We should dismantle prisons and spend our resources on education.

You can use the following image to quickly revise all the of the different types of claims in writing.

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