Phonics is a method for teaching the reading and writing of an alphabetic language. Phonics involves matching the sounds of spoken English with individual letters or groups of letters.
In Phase 2, children begin to learn the sounds that letters make (called phonemes). There are forty-four sounds in all. Some of which are made with two letters, but in Phase 2, children focus on learning the 19 most common single letter sounds. ‘These are broken down into smaller sets of about six sounds to make them more achievable for children to learn,’ says Sara.
Although the order in which sounds are taught will depend on which scheme your child’s school follows, usually, they will learn the most commonly used phonemes first, starting with: s, a, t, i, p, n.
Different words can be made from these letters.
Sat, Pat, At, Tan, Tap, Pin, Tin, Sit, Sin, and Tip.
In Phase 2, letters and their sounds are introduced one at a time. A set of letters is taught each week, in the following sequence:
Set 1: s, a, t, p
Set 2: i, n, m, d
Set 3: g, o, c, k
Set 4: ck, e, u, r
Set 5: h, b, f, ff, l, ll, ss
Set 1 Letters and Words
In Set 1, the first four letters are introduced and seven words can be made from them by segmenting and blending.
S, a, t, p at, a, sat, pat, tap, sap, as
Set 2 Phonics Letters and Words
Set 2 introduces four new letters. As each new letter is learnt, children will be able to sound out several new words, as follows:
|i||it, is, sit, sat, pit, tip, pip, sip|
|n||an, in, nip, pan, pin, tin, tan, nap|
|m||am, man, mam, mat, map, Pam, Tim, Sam|
|d||dad, and, sad, dim, dip, din, did, Sid|
Set 3 – Letters and Words
Set 3 introduces four new letters, from which 28 new decodable words can be formed:
|g||tag, gag, gig, gap, nag, sag, gas, pig, dig|
|o||got, on, not, pot, top, dog, pop, God, Mog|
|c||can, cot, cop, cap, cat, cod|
|k||kid, kit, Kim, Ken|
Set 4 Letters and Words
Set 4 introduces four new letters, from which 36 new decodable words can be formed. For the first time, some of the suggested words contain two syllables, such as pocket, sunset etc., which some young children might find too difficult at this stage. At this stage, it is more important for children to experience success at sounding out short words. Their ability to form longer words will improve as their short-term memory develops.
At this point, two “tricky words” (not fully decodable at this stage) are taught: the and to.
|ck||kick, sock, sack, dock, pick, sick, pack, ticket, pocket|
|e||get, pet, ten, net, pen, peg, met, men, neck|
|u||up, mum, run, mug, cup, sun, tuck, mud, sunset|
|r||rim, rip, ram, rat, rag, rug, rot, rocket, carrot|
Set 5 Letters and Words
Set 5 introduces seven graphemes (three of which are doubled letters), with 69 new decodable words formed.
New “tricky” words: no, go and I.
|h||had, him, his, hot, hut, hop, hum, hit, hat, has, hack, hug|
|b||but, big, back, bet, bad, bag, bed, bud, beg, bug, bun, bus, Ben, bat, bit, bucket, beckon, rabbit|
|f, ff||of, if, off, fit, fin, fun, fig, fog, puff, huff, cuff, fan, fat|
|l, ll||lap, let, leg, lot, lit, bell, fill, doll, tell, sell, Bill, Nell, dull, laptop|
|ss||ass, less, hiss, mass, mess, boss, fuss, hiss, pass, kiss, Tess, fusspot|
Keep exploring EnglishBix for more quality resources on different phonics phases.